Emotional and social development Erikson stages
Physical, Emotional and Psychological Stages of Development
KNOWING what, when and how to meet the needs of your child’s development, supports you as a parent – committed to providing the environment your child needs to grow up happy, healthy, and whole. Remember, too, to trust your child to lead you in how best to meet their needs through each exciting, extraordinary developmental stage. Scroll down and click the age you are looking for.
Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994) described the physical, emotional and psychological stages of development, and related the specific issues, or developmental work or tasks, to each stage. For example, as you meet your infant’s physical and emotional need, (i.e. his cries are soothed, her smiles are met with yours) your actions effect the connections in your infant’s brain necessary to complete the primary task of learning it is safe to trust.
Developing trust is the most crucial of all tasks. As you meet your baby’s needs, your actions wire the limbic brain for a lifelong secure sense of self through the consistent, pleasurable bonding between baby and you. The quality of this most critical period of primary bonding is the foundation for all development to follow. Joy-based family bonding is the foundation that establishes your child’s lifelong ability to share emotional intimacy, attain optimal intellectual potential, develop compassion, empathy, and the ability to trust in relationships, form self-identity and self-esteem, control emotions, develop language and motor control, and strengthen brain structures and organization of the nervous system. However, a child whose parents compromise the infant’s biological desperation to trust will physically move through each subsequent stage, but will emotionally carry with him or her the remnants of their incomplete, foundational rupture of what mattered most. With this crack in the foundation of the child’s developing personality, normal completion of the following stages is placed at-risk. All stages are dependent upon the healthy process and completion of the task before. For instance, what happens when a parent interrupts or denies a toddler opportunities to experiment with the objects in his world, such as discovering dirt and water = mud, or the wonder of gravity as he watches his food drop to the floor over and over again? The child’s brain misses the critical neural wiring those experiences would have provided, including the emotional awareness of feeling confidence in his or her abilities. When normal curiosity and “hands on” experiences are thwarted, the neural building blocks necessary for later developmentally-appropriate steps towards independence and self-confidence are compromised, as well. Similarly, a pre-schooler who is made to feel that the activities...
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To feel safe and develop trust, infants and young children need a stable, caring environment. Their basic emotional and physical needs must be consistently met. For instance, when a baby cries, his or her need for a meal or a diaper must be met with a shared emotional exchange that may include eye contact, smiling and caressing.
A child whose needs are ignored or met with emotionally or physically abusive responses from caregivers comes to expect rejection or hostility. The child then becomes distrustful and learns to avoid social contact
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