Social disintegration in India : Social Development

Social disintegration in India

Search Loading

Dr Mamphela Ramphele is Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cape Town.

Dr Ramphele is a medical doctor, and has a PhD in anthropology.

She is co-author, with Francis Wilson, of the book "Uprooting Poverty" and, with Barney Pityana, Malusi Mpumlwana and Lindy Wilson, of the book on Steve Biko and Black Consciousness in South Africa entitled "Bounds of Possibility".

This paper was delivered at a Joint Enrichment Project workshop on marginalised youth in June 1991. Monitor is grateful to Ms Shiela Sisulu and JEP for permission to print this paper.

'Deprived of their natural guides, children of migrants (and all other poor blacks) grow through an insecure, uncertain childhood to an adult life whose sole preoccupation may be to escape the system. There must be a harvest of aggression, with the weeds of violence growing rank within it. The dreadful society is the community of careless, of those who, treated like boys behave like boys; of those who, having no responsibilities laid upon them owe none to any man. In that chill climate will there be any place for trust? Any hope for human intercourse at all?" (Anthony Barker, 1970). (1)

INTRODUCTION

Increasing concern is being expressed about the problem of "the alienated youth" or "the lost generation" or "marginalised youth". The concern is mostly based on the recognition of the potential of this sector of the South African population to destabilise the country, regardless of the nature of the political settlement achieved. A major limitation of this concern is its failure to locate the problem of the alienated youth in a wider analytical framework as a symptom of a deeper malaise - the rapid downward spiral towards total disintegration of the fabric of the black community.

ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL DISINTEGRATION

Communities undergoing social disintegration have been observed to display some of the following behavioural patterns to a greater or lesser extent:

Ø Family breakdowns with rising divorce, separation, single parenthood and high teenage pregnancy rates.

Ø Low job participation with both high unemployment and unemployable rates.

Ø High alcohol and drug abuse.

Ø Low performance in all spheres of life including school and skills training.

Ø High crime rates and endemic violence at all levels of social interaction: family, inter-personal, neighbourhoods and wider community.

Ø Despair and acceptance of the victim image.

Ø Flight of skills and positive role models from the townships into higher income areas.

A similar phenomenon observed amongst blacks in the United States has been characterised by social scientists as the emergence of an underclass. Such characterisation presupposes the presence of dominant mainstream classes which can be used as reference points. There is strong empirical evidence of an underclass in the USA which under-performs in all respects in comparison with the American mainstream.

Other examples of this phenomenon are to be found in Ireland, and the United Kingdom amongst white working class people. India also has its own pockets of social disintegration. They seem to be communities bereft of any positive motivation to engage in creative strategies to deal with the challenges of life. The first Carnegie Report on Poverty in South Africa indicated that a large proportion of poor whites in the thirties also exhibited similar tendencies.

You might also like

Speaking of Giuliani

by stresskitty

August 4, 2001
JOURNAL
1 Mayor, 2 Guys, 1 Shih Tzu
By FRANK RICH
For the past two months Rudolph Giuliani has been coming home at night to one of the happiest marriages in New York.
That's how long the mayor, in flight from his own marital wreckage at Gracie Mansion, has been a frequent sleepover guest at the home of Howard Koeppel and his partner, Mark Hsiao. Mr. Koeppel, who is 64, is a Queens car dealer who has been both a close friend and prodigious fund-raiser of Mr. Giuliani's since 1989. The 41-year-old Mr. Hsiao is a Juilliard-trained pianist who works at the city's Department of Cultural Affairs

Country Boy (or Girl) will survive

by NoPirate1

Hitler's Henchman Goering was it, would be PROUD of America's Propaganda Machine. But lookee here, the newspapers are crying that they're losing out?. WHY?. Because alot of Americans don't see the need to pay a DIME for 2 columns of BS and 10 pages of advertising. Plus, ain't that also the result of our "dumbing down" schools?. It's true, kids can't read their h.s diplomma and what's worse, they've been told "dumb is okay, the gov't will take care of you". The truth would make their heads hurt.
WELL, it's going to be HELL when China no longer loans us any more money and even Social Security quits coming in the mail

Anchor Disintegration: The Splintering of Black America
Book (Anchor)

How to understand Piketty: read him yourself  — Oxford Student
The first is to applaud Piketty's work, construct some grand theory of social decline such as a new gilded age or a transition to oligarchy, and back his proposals for new taxes and regulation of wealth.

Zim: Health and education bounce back  — Mail & Guardian Online
The scale of the social decline required an equally large-scale national response.

Academic Pr Archaeology of Social Disintegration in Skunk Hollow: A Nineteenth Century Rural Black Community (Studies in Historical Archaeology (New York, N.Y.).)
Book (Academic Pr)

Holyrood Message  — Greenock Telegraph
And this despite the government stating that reversing economic, physical and social decline of communities where market forces alone won't suffice is a top priority.

Their Second Republic: Islamism in the Sudan from Disintegration to Oblivion
Book (Ashgate Pub Co)
Bloomsbury Academic The Inca Empire: The Formation and Disintegration of a Pre-Capitalist State (Explorations in Anthropology)
Book (Bloomsbury Academic)
  • ISBN13: 9780854963485
  • Condition: New
  • Notes: BRAND NEW FROM PUBLISHER! 100% Satisfaction Guarantee. Tracking provided on most orders. Buy with Confidence! Millions of books sold!
Academic Pr Disintegration and Political Action: The Changing Functions of City Governments in America (Quantitative studies in social relations series)
Book (Academic Pr)

New Iron App helps bridge the gap between gaming and education  — WalesOnline
The past century has seen the town suffer from relative economic and social decline but there is undoubtedly an economic and cultural renaissance underway.