Social decline Roman Empire : Social Development

Social decline Roman Empire

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire emerged from the Roman Republic when Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar transformed it from a republic into a monarchy. Rome reached its zenith in the 2nd century, then fortunes slowly declined with many revivals and restorations along the way. The reasons for the decline of the Empire are still debated today, and are multiple.

The Roman Empire was an ancient empire centered around the Mediterranean Sea, commonly dated from accession of the Emperor Augustus in 27 BC through the abdication of the last emperor in 476 AD. It was the successor state to the Roman Republic, and constituted the final period of classical antiquity.

The 500-year-old Roman Republic, which preceded it, had been weakened through several civil wars. Several events are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), and the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC), though the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus is most common (16 January 27 BC).

The first two centuries of the empire were characterized by the Pax Romana, which was a period of unprecedented peace and prosperity. Though Roman expansion was mostly accomplished under the republic, it continued under the emperors. Notably, parts of northern Europe were conquered in the 1st century AD, while Roman dominion in Europe, Africa and especially Asia was strengthened during this time. Numerous uprisings were successfully put down, notably those in Britain and Judea, though the latter uprising triggered the suicide of the unpopular Emperor Nero and a brief civil war.

The empire would reach its greatest territorial extent under the emperor Trajan in 117 AD, though most of his gains were given up under his successor. In the view of Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the Emperor Commodus in 180 AD marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron" - a famous comment which has led some historians, notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. A succession of unsuccessful emperors followed, and then a period of civil wars and social unrest during the Crisis of the Third Century.

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The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire - Book 5 (FULL
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The decline of the Roman Empire was due to

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Several factors, including invasions, crop failures, smallpox/measles, deforestation, an overly complex bureaucratic infrastructure, germanic barbarians, and Christianity. Yes, Christianity led to the fall of the Empire. Look into the complex relationship between the adoption of Christianity and the social/governmental issues that followed.
People with an agenda like to trot out the fall of the Roman Empire and pretend somehow that increased homosexuality caused it, but this is a fools game of lies and historical ignorance.
Read a god-damned history book, people, instead of listening to what right-wing pundits and preachers instruct you to believe

H. Schuman The decline of the Roman Empire in the West (Schuman's college paperbacks)
Book (H. Schuman)

How to understand Piketty: read him yourself  — Oxford Student
The first is to applaud Piketty's work, construct some grand theory of social decline such as a new gilded age or a transition to oligarchy, and back his proposals for new taxes and regulation of wealth.

Zim: Health and education bounce back  — Mail & Guardian Online
The scale of the social decline required an equally large-scale national response.

Bloomsbury Academic The Fall of the Western Roman Empire: Archaeology, History and the Decline of Rome (Historical Endings)
Book (Bloomsbury Academic)

Holyrood Message  — Greenock Telegraph
And this despite the government stating that reversing economic, physical and social decline of communities where market forces alone won't suffice is a top priority.

Routledge The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Early Sources in Classics; 6 Volume Set)
Book (Routledge)
Barkhuis The Rise of Christianity through the eyes of Gibbon, Harnack and Rodney Stark
Book (Barkhuis)
  • Used Book in Good Condition
A bibliography of the works of Edward Gibbon, (Selected essays in history, economics, & social science, 130)
Book (B. Franklin)

New Iron App helps bridge the gap between gaming and education  — WalesOnline
The past century has seen the town suffer from relative economic and social decline but there is undoubtedly an economic and cultural renaissance underway.