Early Childhood social development articles : Social Development

Early Childhood social development articles

Early Childhood Development:

Dimensions of Development: Infancy and Childhood: Personality and Social Development

Psychosocial Stages

Psychologist Erikson proposed that personality development proceeds through eight major psychosocial stages. Each stage involves a major crisis (i.e. conflict) over how we view ourselves in relation to other people and the world. Four crises occur in infancy and childhood:

· Basic trust versus mistrust (age 1)

How adequately our needs are met, and how much love and attention we receive, determine whether we develop a basic trust or basic mistrust of the world.

· Autonomy versus shame and doubt (age 1-2)

If parents unduly restrict children or make harsh demands during toilet training, children develop shame and doubt about their abilities and later lack the courage to be independent.

· Initiative versus guilt (age 3-5)

If children are given freedom to explore and receive answers to their questions, they develop a sense of initiative. If they are held back or punished, they develop guilt about their desires and suppress their curiosity.

· Industry versus inferiority (age 6-12)

Children who experience pride and encouragement in mastering tasks develop “industry” – a striving to achieve. Repeated failure and lack of praise for trying leads to a sense of inferiority.

Because each stage of life creates new opportunities, personality is not fixed in childhood. The way we resolve each crisis influences our ability to meet the challenges of the next stage.

Temperament reflects a biologically based pattern of reacting emotionally and behaviourally to the environment. Extreme temperamental styles in infancy and childhood can predict some aspects functioning years later.

Attachment

Attachment refers to the strong emotional bond that develops between children and their primary caregivers.

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Happiness

by sfuser

I read this in The New Republic a few weeks back. I've found myself thinking about it frequently, so naturally I decided to impose my preoccupation on the board.
The article talks about a branch of psychiatry that tries to focus on what causes happiness, rather than what causes dysfunction. I felt that the article not only discussed some practical trends in psych, but also provided readers with some good ways to achieve greater happiness. It's moderately lengthy (I'd guess 4,000 words).
Psychology discovers happiness

Connecting to disconnect?  — Kashmir Reader
Research has proven Children's social development is at risk due to increased social isolation as children playing by themselves; their linguistic intellectual and imagination development is at risk.

Habitat for kids and wildlife  — Surrey Leader
“Council recognizes that playgrounds are very important for children's social development, as it is there they get a chance to play, socialize and meet new friends,” said Delta Mayor Lois.